Applications By sample

Our instruments provide researchers with accurate, detailed, and comprehensive mechanical characterization of a variety of samples, including cells, subcellular compartments, 3D cultures, tissue sections, decellularized extracellular matrix, and biomaterials. The ability to measure the mechanical properties of relatively large areas at high resolution empowers scientists to gain a deeper understanding of the behavior and function of biological samples and biomaterials, representing a significant advancement in mechanobiology.

Spheroids & organoids

The increased popularity of 3D cell cultures, such as spheroids and organoids, is largely attributed to their ability to closely resemble in vivo conditions and provide more physiologically relevant in vitro models. The mechanical response in 3D cell culture results from the properties of individual cells and the intricate interplay among these cells and the surrounding environment across various length scales. Additionally, 3D systems can be composed of different cell types and exhibit variations in extracellular matrix (ECM) that lead to spatial heterogeneity in local mechanical responses. All these features shape the mechanical properties of 3D cultures and, consequently, their formation in vitro. In this context, our technology proves instrumental in mapping the local mechanical properties of heterogeneous biological materials and elucidating their relationship to their overall mechanical behavior.

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A versatile class of biomaterials known as hydrogels is central to medicine and biotechnology. Hydrogels used in medical implants, drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and in vitro culture substrates must possess specific mechanical properties to ensure compatibility, functionality, and longevity. Strength, stiffness, density, composition, and viscoelasticity properties influence how biomaterials interact with biological systems. Integrating next-generation hydrogels with our instruments promises a revolutionary understanding and mastery of hydrogel mechanical properties, paving the way for the design of customized biomaterials for diverse applications.

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Extracellular matrix

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex and dynamic network surrounding cells across various tissues and providing structural and mechanical support. Engineered ECM and decellularized tissue-derived ECM contribute to creating biomimetic environments that closely resemble the native conditions of tissues, promoting more relevant biological responses and outcomes in tissue engineering and regeneration. Variations in ECM topography, stiffness, and deformability can significantly modify the mechanical microenvironment and impact cellular behavior and function. Therefore, investigating the mechanical properties of ECM is essential for replicating the nature of tissue and complex physiological conditions. Our technology enables scientists to mechanically characterize ECM, understand their local heterogeneity, and establish the correlation between their mechanical and chemical properties.

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Single cells and 2D cultures

Changes in the mechanical properties of living cells, such as their stiffness and viscoelasticity, can affect cellular function, behavior, and physical interactions with the surrounding extracellular matrix. Mechanical cues are pivotal in cellular dynamics, whether arising from the cell’s cytoskeleton or applied externally to the cell surface. They can influence various cellular components, including the membrane, nucleus, and other organelles. Besides, the intricate interplay of mechanical forces extends beyond the confines of single cells, affecting the cell-cell contact area and the extracellular environment. It acts as a functional readout parameter, revealing how mechanical forces influence physiological and pathological processes. To elucidate the mechanical properties of cellular structures, our nanoindenters offer a high-resolution approach to investigating the mechanics of single cells, 2D cultures, and subcellular compartments at the microscale. This sophisticated method allows scientists to delve into the intricate mechanical dynamics of living cells, offering valuable knowledge of how mechanical changes affect cellular processes.

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Ex vivo tissues

Biological tissues are complex assemblies of diverse cell types, extracellular matrix, and molecular components that contribute to the specific functions of each tissue type. Changes in tissue microstructure determine its mechanical properties, which may vary with age, disease development, and physiological status. Due to the heterogeneity and multiscale complexity of tissues, alterations in their mechanical properties occur at subcellular to cellular levels and cellular to tissue levels. In this sense, our technology allows measuring the mechanical properties over large tissue areas while providing high-resolution insights into tissue mechanical heterogeneities at a fine scale.

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Engineered muscle tissue

Tissue-engineered 3D skeletal and cardiac muscle constructs are increasingly becoming state-of-art for in vitro models, supplementing traditional 2D cultures and animal models. The assessment of contractility, whether spontaneous or induced by electrical stimulation, is crucial for investigating muscle tissue biology and diseases. The most direct method to measure contractility involves quantifying the force generated by the tissue during contraction. Accordingly, our innovation accurately and automatically measures the contractile force continuously generated by engineered muscle in a physiological environment upon custom electrical stimulation.

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Engineered heart tissue

The principal promise of engineered heart tissue is to form spontaneous contracting 3D structures that closely recapitulate cardiac muscle physiology and allow studies of cell-cell interactions and heart muscle function under normal and pathological conditions. These 3D models provide a more physiologically relevant environment for cell growth, maturation, and differentiation, where direct contractile force and electrophysiological properties integrate the heterogeneous functions of multiple cell types. This is particularly valuable for disease modeling, drug screening, and cardiac regeneration. With the increased use of engineered heart tissue models, an unbiased, robust, and automated system is fundamental to analyzing their contractile properties. In this sense, our technology offers continuous and automated contractility monitoring with integrated electrical stimulation for understanding the cellular mechanisms involved in heart diseases and cardiac regeneration.

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Want to learn more about latest developments?


Whether your focus lies on mechanical measurements and characterization at the cell scale, or you work with muscle tissues, our platforms offer you precise, fast, and accurate outcomes. Discover more about how our products can help you accelerate and achieve your research goals. 


We are a growing team of 60+ passionate people, headquartered in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Learn more about our journey so far, meet our team of professionals, and our career opportunities. 


From initial interest to full-scale implementation, and throughout the entire lifecycle of our instruments, we offer our customers a dedicated and customized experience. We focus on optimizing the functionality and operation of our instruments, to ensure peak efficiency, enhancing their research productivity.



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